BACKGROUND: Ablepsy? no ... only a nictitate membrane.

GLOSSARY

 

Adult: old, mature bird in definitive plumage. It is not possible to know its exact year of birth.

Alula: a group of feathers, usually three, attached at the digital bone, near the wing-bend on upper forewind.

Autumn: in wide sense, period that goes from the end of the moult until December 31.

Breeding plumage: colorful plumage gained by many birds for breeding period, primarily males, through abrasion or in a prebreeding moult.

Carpal: wing feather placed between greater coverts and alula.

Cere: bare skin on the base of upper mandible and around nostrils; it's usually coloured in adult birds and in breeding time.

Complete moult: all feathers of the body, wings and tail are changed.

Crown: upper part of the head.

Eclipse plumage: cryptic, female-like plumage attained by male ducks in summer.

Emargination: a step or abrupt narrowing of the web of a feahter, occuring towards the tip of the outer web of the feather.

Eye-ring (Orbital ring): a ring of bare, unfeathered skin, around the eye, usually coloured.

First year (1st year): age category referring to the first year of the life of the bird, from  hatch until December 31.

First year autumn (1st year autumn): age category referring to the first autumn of the life of the bird, from its postjuvenile moult until December 31.

Flight feathers: the long quills on the wing, primaries, secondaries and tertials.

Grater coverts: wing feathers covering the bases of secondaries.

Juvenil: fledged bird wearing the first set of true feathers, but which has not yet moulted any of these feathers.

Lesser coverts: small feathers placed upper wing, near the median coverts.

Median coverts: small feathers placed in the middle of the wing, between greater coverts and lesser coverts.

Moult: a natural process of renewal of the plumage, whereby the old feathers are shed and new ones grown; moult pattern is very different between species or between different ages in the same species.

Moustachial stripe, moustache: usually narrow stripe, often dark, running from near the base of the lower mandible and along the lower edge of the cheek.Bigote, bigotera.

Non-breeding plumage: usually equivalent to adult winter plumage, a more cryptic plumage appearing among species with seasonal plumage changes.

Partial moult: no all feathers of the body, wings or tail are changed; some are retained.

Prebreeding moult: moult taking place late winter, before the breeding period; some species acquire their breeding plumage.

Primaries: the quills growing on the outer wing, the part of the wing outside the wing bend.

Postbreeding moult: moult taking place after breeding period; most of the small birds acquire the adult plumage in their first postbreeding moult.

Postjuvenile moult: first moult where all or part of the juvenile plumage is lost.

Primary coverts: wing feathers covering the bases of primaries.

Rectrices: the main tail feathers.

Retained feathers: unmoulted feathers which remain on wings or tail after a moult.

Rump: feathers placed on lower back, nearets the tail.

Scapulars: feathers covering the shoulder of birds.

Second year (2nd year): age category referring to the second year of the life of the bird, from January 1 until December 31.

Second year autumn (2nd year autumn): age category referring to the autumn on the second year of the life of the bird, from its second moult until December 31.

Second year spring (2nd year spring): age category referring to the spring on the second year of the life of the bird, from January 1 until its second moult.

Secondaries: the quills growing on the inner wing.

Shaft: the main axis of a feaher where webs grow.

Speculum: distinctive, glossy patch on upper secondaries, often on ducks.

Spring: in wide sense, period that goes from the January 1 until the end of the moult.

Suspended moult: a temporary interruption which is subsequently resumed at the point of interruption; usually due to migration.

Third year (3rd year): age category referring to the third year of the life of the bird, from January 1 until December 31.

Third year autumn (3rd year autumn): age category referring to the autumn on the third year of the life of the bird, from its third moult until December 31.

Third year spring (3rd year spring): age category referring to the spring on the third year of the life of the bird, from January 1 until its third moult.

Tertials: the innermost wing feathers, usually with somewhat different shape and pattern; they are three in small birds.

Undertail coverts: small feathers covering the base of rectrices on tail reverse.

Underwing coverts: small feathers covering the base of long feathers on wing reverse.

Uppertail coverts: small feathers covering the base of rectrices on tail.

Young: a young bird before acquire the first set of true feathers.

Web: the barbs on each side of the shaft of a bird's feather.

Wing coverts: small feathers covering the wings.